在A Level考試中,AS和A2的占比相同,但是難度卻大相徑庭。在AS考試中拿一個相對較高的分數(90+/100)非常非常重要!這樣的話A2就會輕松很多。復習過程中,對知識點的梳理非常重要,我AS拿高分的秘籍就是一遍又一遍的整理筆記(mind map/紙上勾勾畫畫/認真梳理 etc.各種整理方法)。

上圖是我學習AS的時候部分筆記一覽~

為了方便大家備考,我根據自己曾經的筆記+syllabus+課本+revision book,稍加改動又整理出來了一份電子版notes~

分為以下五個topic:

1.Basic Economic Ideas and Resource Allocation-基本經濟觀點與資源分配

2.Price System and the Microeconomiy-價值體系與微觀經濟

3.Government Microeconomic Intervention-政府微觀經濟干預

4.The Macroeconomy-宏觀經濟

5.Government Macroeconomic Intervention-政府宏觀經濟干預

本篇文章是TOPIC 1的內容,包含:

1.Scarcity, Choice and Opportunity Cost

2.Positive Statements and Normative Statements

3.Factors of Production and their Rewards

4.Resource Allocation in Different Economic Systems and Issues of Transition

5.Production Possibility Curves

money&classification of goods這兩個小話題會放在Price system里面,因為money和price更相關,classification of goods和elasticity更相關。

Scarcity, Choice and Opportunity Cost

一個最基礎的經濟學概念:稀缺性

Scarcity

因為人們有無限的愿望,但是資源確是有限的。

A situation that arises because people have unlimited wants in the face of limited resources People always have to make choices and prioritize the consumption of commodities.

因此,人們總是需要做決定(make decisions),并把所有事情按心中價值排序(prioritization)。

比如說,你在超市里但只有五元錢,只能買一塊巧克力,一盒牛奶或者一帶薯片。因為你的錢稀缺,你必須在這三個物品中作出一個選擇。你排序這三件商品,覺得薯片>巧克力>牛奶,因此購買了薯片。產生這一系列過程的原因就是(你對錢的)稀缺性。從而引出了機會成本這個概念:

Opportunity Costs

The opportunity cost of a choice is the value of the next best alternative forgone.

在上面那個例子中,你放棄了巧克力和牛奶兩件商品,但是你的opportunity cost是巧克力對你的價值,而并非牛奶 或巧克力和牛奶的價值。因為OC指的是放棄了的第二優選擇的價值(the value of next best alternative forgone)。機會成本也是經濟學里一個非常重要的概念。無論是個人、企業還是政府做選擇都會考慮到機會成本,因為資源是有限的

Ceteris Paribus

經濟學還有一個專業的名詞(拉丁語):Ceteris Paribus,意味著其他變量保持不變。

It is a key assumption made in economics. It means all other things are held constant or are equal.

Positive Statements and Normative Statements

學會分辨 “fact and fiction”很重要。

Positive Statements

Positive Statements是指客觀的觀點。

They are objective statements based on factual evidence. They can be tested and can consequently be rejected or accepted.

客觀觀點里經常出現“will”“is”這樣的單詞,比如:The price will fall as the demand decreases.

Normative Statements

Normative Statements是指主觀的觀點,是基于個人觀點得出判斷的。

They are subjective statements based on value judgments. It cannot be tested by factual evidence.

主觀觀點里經常出現“should”“better””best”這樣的單詞,比如:Government should put inflation control as top priority.這些Normative Statements可能會影響經濟政策,不同的經濟學家用同樣的數據可能會進行不一樣的衡量和假設。因此,Normative和Positive Statements都很重要。

Factors of Production and their Rewards

Economic Resources are the factors of production. These include:

land

land是指自然資源,并非只有土地!!

Natural resources such as oil, coal, wheat, water.

It can also be physical space for fixed capital.

Reward: Rent

labor

人力成本,同時也是the workforce of the economy.

Reward: wages

enterprise

需要的是管理能力。

Entrepreneur is someone who take risks, innovates, and uses the FOP. Resources are drawn together into the production process.

Reward: Profit

capital

capital是指實體的投入,比如機器。

Reward:interest from the investment; dividends.

Specialization and division of labor

亞當史密斯提出來的Specialization。

It occurs when each worker completes a specific task in a production process. Through division of labor, productivity can increase. Firms can then take advantage of increased efficiency and lower average costs of production.

通過分工(專業人做專業事/流水線生產)1. 生產率可以提高 2. 平均成本降低。Specialization可以存在于個人、企業、地區、國家中。

優點:

1.更高的產率+更高的質量。
Higher output and potentially higher quality, since production focuses on what people and businesses are best at.

2.可以增大商品和服務的覆蓋范圍。
There could be a greater variety of goods and services produced.

3.economies of scale的機會增多,市場規模增大。
There are more opportunities for economies of scale, so the size of the market increases.

4.刺激競爭,firms可能會選擇降低價格,可以保證價格稍微低一點。
There is more competition and this gives an incentive for firms to lower their costs, which helps to keep prices down.

缺點:

1.員工積極性可能會降低,因為工作非常的重復性,從而導致一系列問題。
Work becomes repetitive, which could lower the motivation of workers, potentially affecting quality and productivity. Workers could become dissatisfied.

2.對于顧客來說,商品內容可能甚至減少。
By producing a lot of one type of good through specialization, variety could in
fact decrease for consumers.

3.員工很容易疲勞或者不滿意,造成經常離職。
There could be higher worker turnover for firms, which means employees become dissatisfied with their jobs and leave regularly.

Short run, long run, and very long run

In the short run, at least one factor of production is fixed.

This means there is a limit to the extent it can respond to price changes.

In the long run, all factors of production are variable.

This means firms can increase their capacity by increasing their factors of production.

In the very long run, the firm’s factors of production are variable, as are the inputs
beyond their control.

This means land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship are variable, as are government rules and technology.

Resource Allocation in Different Economic Systems

有三種市場:

Free market economy

在自由市場中,沒有政府干預,供給和需求決定分配資源。

Government leaves markets to their own devices, so the market force of supply and demand allocate scarce resources.

但是在現實生活中,政府會通過立法等辦法干涉市場。

Three questions to be answered:

1.What to produce :determined by what consumer prefers.

2.How to produce it? : producers seek profits.

3.For whom to produce it? : whoever has the greatest purchasing power in the economy, and is therefore able to buy the good.

好處:

1.Firms are likely to be efficient因為他們需要提供顧客需要的服務和商品。他們需要降低自己的平均成本,更好的利用有限資源。

2.The bureaucracy from government intervention is avoided.

3.Freedom gained from having a free economy leads to more personal freedom.

壞處:

1.可能會造成不公平的發生。如果有政府控制的話,可以設定最低價格和最高價格。但是在自由市場里面,一切都是需求和供給決定的。
The free market ignores inequality, and tends to benefit those who hold most of the wealth. There are no social security payments for those on low incomes.

2.可能會形成壟斷。但是如果有政府控制的話,會頒布反壟斷法等之類的規定。
There could be monopolies, which could exploit the market by charging higher prices.

3.demerit good的過度消費和merit good的供給不足。
There could be the over-consumption of demerit goods, which have large negative externalities, such as tobacco. Merit goods, such as education, are under-provided.

4.沒有public good。
Public goods are not provided in a free market, such as national defense.

Planned economy

和自由市場相反,計劃市場是完全由政府操控的。

This is where the government allocates all of the scarce resources in an economy to where they think there is a greater need. It is also referred to as central planning.

優點:

1.分配資源更有效更簡單。
It might be easier to coordinate resources in times of crises, such as wars.

2.有可能可以保證每個人都得到最起碼的供給。
The government can compensate for market failure, by reallocating resources. They might ensure everyone can access basic necessities.

3.可以減少社會不公平。
Inequality in society could be reduced, and society might maximise welfare rather than profit.

4.不會出現壟斷現象。
The abuse of monopoly power could be prevented.

缺點:

1.政府可能沒法生產顧客喜歡的東西。
They may not necessarily meet consumer preferences.

2.It limits democracy and personal freedom.
Three questions to be answered:

What to produce: determined by what the government prefers.

How to produce it: governments and their employees.

For whom to produce it: who the government prefers.

Mixed economy

混合性經濟體是現實生活中最常見的;具有上面兩種市場的特征。政府會提供public good (比如路燈,道路,警察)and merit good(比如教育,health care system)。

This has features of both planned and free economies and is the most common economic system today. There are different balances between planned and free economies in reality.

Three questions to be answered:

What to produce: determined by both consumer and government preferences.

How to produce it: determined by producers making profits and the government.

For whom to produce it: both who the government prefers and the purchasing power of private individuals.

Production Possibility Curves

生產可能性邊界上表示一個經濟體最大的生產可能。

Production possibility curves (PPC) depict the maximum productive potential of an economy, using a combination of two goods or services, when resources are fully and efficiently employed.

A和B是最efficient的點。E不可能被達到,CD是inefficient。

PPC也可以展示economic growth或者economic decline:

通過economic growth (outward shift of PPC),可以達到E點。因為只有PPC線上和PPC內部的點是可達到的(attainable)。但是只有PPC線上的點是efficiently used,內部的點全部都是inefficient,因為沒有合理運用resources。

如果沒有經濟增長的話,能達到PPC線外的點的唯一途徑就是trade—和另外一個經濟體合理交易。(通過comparative advantage以及terms of trade)

兩種特殊的PPC形狀:

直線(理想模型)

If the PPC is a straight line, the marginal* opportunity cost is constant. This is because the amount of one good given up to produce the other does not change.

This is not realistic because resources are not fully adjustable to produce both good A and good B.

Define margin:margin的意思是邊際,這個概念在以后會有很多用處(比如邊際成本,邊際效益)有句話說:理性人思考邊際(rational people think of margin.)考慮到margin意味著考慮下一步act 。

Economic theory suggests that each extra unit of a good or service consumed gives the consumer less utility. This is the law of diminishing marginal returns.

margin意味著 consume one more unit所多出來的東西,比如marginal utility:the extra utility gain from consuming one more unit of good.

concave shape

The concave shape of the PPF shows increasing opportunity cost. This is more realistic than the straight line. Producing more of good B decreases the relative output of B and leads to a relatively higher loss of the output of A.
以上就是Top 1 Basic Economic Ideas and Resource Allocation的知識點梳理!希望能為大家的備考帶來幫助!

建議大家也根據自己所學知識,按照syllabus的大綱內容,用自己的邏輯整理一下筆記或者思維導圖!可以夯實AS的基礎,把AS考高是A Level取勝的必不可少因素!大家加油~

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